;

Enlightenment



  • Voltaire Spread Darkness, Not Enlightenment. France Should Stop Worshipping Him.

    by Nabila Ramdani

    Nabila Ramdani argues that the French Enlightenment thinker's abstract defenses of free speech and inquiry should not overshadow the concrete content of what he said and wrote, which included historically influential racist and antisemitic bigotry cloaked in the language of reason and science.



  • John Locke Breaks His Silence

    A new manuscript is located in Maryland. But do Americans care what the philosophers have to say?



  • Studies show enlightenment has no bearing on torture

    Two recent examinations suggest that torture arises not because of individual barbarity and sadism, or even because of the presence or absence of enlightened laws, but because of social and psychological structures. The 20th century provided more avenues for such structures to flourish, these analyses suggest, which is why so much more torture took place in the last 100 years. Sociologist Christopher Einolf recently compiled a history of torture. He limited his study to cases involving conduct t